Calcium Oxalate Bladder Stones in Dogs; Prevent the Recurrence

Your dog is urinating blood, whining and trying to pee on every bush in your front yard.

Oh well, it’s probably a UTI, you think. Or, he is just having a bad day.  You hope it all just goes away.

Well, lots of times, if it is just a UTI, it will go away.

If bladder stones are responsible, these symptoms won’t just “go away”.

Bladder stones in dogs are complicated.

Many types develop for many different reasons.

Let’s fast forward and say your dog was diagnosed with bladder stones, and the stones were surgically removed. Now, not all stones have to be removed surgically, but for the sake of this article, let’s pretend they are.

After removal, these stones should be sent to the Minnesota Urolith Center for identification.

This is mandatory!

If you don’t know the type of stone, then you don’t know how to prevent the recurrence. For the latest research on the different types of stones and treatment, check out the Minnesota Urolith Center. This is the lab where I send stones for analysis.

Let’s pretend the stone was identified as a Calcium Oxalate bladder stone.

Unfortunately, Calcium oxalate bladder stones in dogs are very common.

We see them frequently in dogs of all ages, breeds, and sizes; however, the typical patient is frequently a male small breed dog (Shih Tzus, Toy Poodles, Schnauzers and Yorkies) somewhere around the age of five.

These stones occur in males about three times as often as in females.

Can you truly prevent Calcium Oxalate stones? Maybe.

Unfortunately, some dogs will have repeat episodes within three years.

You will get hundreds of recommendations on how to prevent stones from coming back.

The following is what I recommend after surgical removal:


  • Urinary ph: should be 6.5-7.5; purchase strips at a drugstore
  • Blood Chemistry once yearly to monitor calcium
  • X-Ray of bladder once yearly to look for recurrence

Western Medicines

There are multiple Western Medicines that can be used and I will tell you only what I initially recommend.

  • Potassium or Calcium Citrate– People debate which is better, but there really is no difference
  • Vitamin B6 tablets
  • PSGAG injection- If dogs concurrently have arthritis, I recommend this therapy. Why?  There is some belief that PSGAG prohibits minerals from sticking to the bladder wall.


I also recommend one or the other.

More water, More breaks, More wet food

  • Increase water consumption! This is vitally important. Have fresh distilled water available, set out multiple water bowls and add flavoring agents. Some dogs like tuna, beef, or peppermint flavoring. Adding salt to the diet is controversial and I would not recommend.
  • Multiple bathroom breaks!
  • Dietary change. Feed a prescription veterinary diet for CaOx uroliths, feed a specialty pet food, or feed a home-prepared diet.
  • If you feed a homemade diet, I advise having a veterinarian develop the diet. Pulling a diet off the internet is not advisable! Keep dietary oxalates low! Most specialty pet foods are low in oxalates.
  • Do not feed a kibble-based diet. My belief is kibble-based diets keep dogs slightly dehydrated (1-2%) and this leads to concentrated urine and thus concentrated urinary minerals.
  • Feed canned food (especially to a small dog).  If you must feed kibble, add water to the food and heat it before serving.

Read The Pet Owner’s Guide to Bladder and Kidney Stones


Want to Know your Pet's Options?





  1. says

    My bichon frise just had her second struvite surgery in one year she was on hill’s s/d for 30 days when I took a sample of urine in she had oxalate crystles is there anything I can do besides give her 30 more days of hill’s s/d which she

    • says

      Hi Phyllis – Thanks for writing! I am a little confused on the time frame of the surgeries and when you used the SD diet. Hills SD is a dissolution diet, only to be used for three months and only for dissolving struvite stones.
      After that time you switch to a different diet. I have seen this before and if you could tell me and be more specific on the time frames and such I may be able to answer your question more appropriately. Thanks, Marc Smith DVM

  2. Peisan says

    My dog had surgery to remove 1 calcium oxalate stone in April 2013. Just last week, the xray showed that he has 3 stones (around 3 mm). He is now on u/d wet food and seems to be working well for him.

    The vet recommended surgery which i know is necessary but i wish we can avoid having it.

    Do you recommend that we take x ray once a month to check the ‘status’?

    Thank you.

    • says

      I would say no to x-raying on a monthly basis. As a general rule, calcium oxalate stones do not dissolve with dietary therapy. Because they do not dissolve with diet change, the best option is to try and Eastern herbal medicine if you want to make any attempt to avoid surgery. Unfortunately, calcium oxalate can be a tough disease. You need to verify that the stones or crystals coming out of the urine now are, indeed, oxalate crystals. More times than not, the stone content can change to struvite depending on the dietary therapy chosen.

  3. Bill says

    My bichon frise had calc ox stones removed in Jan 2013. She had been ob hills ud for the prior year because crystals were detected in her urine. After surgery the vet switched her to Royal Canin SO dry and crystals were again present. He recommended to switch to canned Royal Canin SO. Another test revealed less crystals and by fluke I found they also had the SO in a moderate calorie morsels in gravy. She loves it and its real wet. I have been giving that for about 7 months with a sprinkle of the dry SO and so far no recurrence. Now the past few days she was acting like she was having trouble jumping up on the couch as when she got the stones before so I quit adding any dry kibble. She is acting better. I just received my Lysimachia-3 and started giving her 1/2 of a 70g pill per day. Any further direction is appreciated.

    • Bill says

      Okay,10.5 lb bichon “Jolene” has had an X-ray and urinalysis yesterday. She has what appears to be a tiny stone maybe two. Could they have been larger just prior to adding the Lysimachia-3? She is acting better jumping up okay and not lifting the right leg when she walks such as last week. So I have added the following to her feedings which is twice a day: 1/4 13oz can of Royal Canin SO/Morsels In Gravy, I drizzle a bit of olive oil, 180 mg of potassium citrate, 50mg vit B6, 700 mg Lysimachia-3, sprinkle of pro-biotic, sprinkle of benefiber, and really loosen the gravy with distilled water. Her BM after eating tonight was loose but not messy. Less olive oil perhaps. I have found that rinsing the food can with distilled water and putting it in her water dish she gulps it so the matter of her not drinking water is going to be okay now. Praying the stones will pass. Any comments ideas suggestions are very welcome.

  4. Christina says

    My 1 year old Mini Schnauzer had a calcium Oxalate stone removed when he was only 9 months old. Six months after his surgery we checked his PH levels and he was still low; 6.5. He has been on Royal Canin SO since the surgery. He went in yesterday to get his yearly ultrasound to make sure he was clear of stones, and there say 3 more stones in his little bladder. His PH levels were great; 7.0, no blood in the urine, and no white blood cells either. I don’t understand how all of that can be perfect, yet he still has 3 stones inside of him? The Vet recommended the Distilled water, so I changed that as of yesterday. The ONLY thing I have ever given him treat wise after his surgery is a rawhide. He’s a 1 year old puppy, and I didn’t feel that the occasional rawhide would override the strict SO diet he’s on. He also is in doggy daycare where he may be getting an occasional treat here and there which I have warned the daycare NOT to do.
    At this point the Vet does not want to operate on his 3 stones because he says he’s already had one surgery, and to open him up again is very risky. Is this true? I’ve read of dogs have multiple surgeries to remove bladder stones. For now, I’m watching him like a hawk and if he shows any signs of distress, I will rush him in and make them do the surgery. Is there ANYTHING I can do to try to help these stones pass? He eats mainly the canned SO because he isn’t much of a water drinker (part of his problems). He’s only 1 year old as I said, I don’t want my baby to have to battle this all his life. I’ve been so strict with his diet, I was in a state of shock when they told me he had 3 more (the same size as the 1 he already had removed).

  5. says

    Calcium Oxalate stones do not always read the book. I think your veterinarian gave you good advice not to pursue surgery right now. Although the stones will not dissolve, two surgeries before 2 years old is not real good either. Sorry you are battling this issue. The good news is that “yes” you can operate on the bladder several times without cause for concern. I would probably go back to the vet in a few months for recheck and maybe x-ray to make sure no new stone development. Also, you may want to try “Crystal Stone Formula,” an Eastern herbal medicine by Jing Tang herbal. You can read more about Crystal Stone Formula at

    -Marc Smith, DVM

  6. says

    Hello Dr. Smith,

    I found your site by searching on “Jing Tang concentrated crystal stone” and I am quite surprised and happy to read about your protocol and treating of crystals / stones for dogs. Great information!

    I believe the Jing Tang concentrated crystal stone capsules have helped our 12 year old shih-tzu, “Beau”. However, we are still in treatment with two local doctors, one western, one holistic, to ensure Beau’s health and wellness. I am curious, what you recommend when the lab test returned shows the stones to be “ammonium urate” stones? I’ve posted our story on the above link to my blog.

    We appreciate any additional advice you may offer here.

    • says

      Hey Sheila,
      Thanks for your question! First, you must rule out liver disease. Urate stones are often associated with liver shunts. This may not be the case in your dog, but you need to know. After this, the following are my recommendations:
      1. Feed canned food or add water copiously to dry food.
      2. Feed low protein and less biologically available protein diet. Stay away from by-product meals and organ meats such as liver, kidney and spleen. Consider egg, dairy, whey proteins and even rice.
      3. Add salt to the diet to promote diureses. This is debatable but i recommend.
      4. Check ph and use modifiers if needed such as potassium citrate.
      5. Consider allopurinol depending on situation.
      5. Frozen bananas as treats or stay away from any treats.

  7. Debbie says

    Hi Dr Smith,

    I just stumbled across your website and I am so happy to have found your article!

    My 11 year old, 80 pound male, black lab/border collie mix (Rocky) had 2 dozen CaOx stones surgically removed from his bladder last June. Only 3 of those stones were detected on x-ray. The rest were very small and the vet was surprised to find so many. The stones were sent to the lab after removal, so I’m sure they were CaOx. Rocky has also battled with UTI’s for the last several years and has hip dysplasia.

    Rocky’s been on dry Royal Canin Urinary SO since last June, and I switched to distilled water at the same time. I’ve also been giving him 200 mg of B6 daily. After reading your article, I’m going to mix more water in with the dry food and also purchase the wet, canned food too.

    I noticed a little blood in Rock’s urine 2 weeks ago. Brought a urine sample in to the vet and sure enough he had another UTI. He just finished the antibiotic prescription and I’ll be bringing him in for an xray in a few days, along with another urinalysis.

    I wanted to purchase the Crystal Stone Formula that you recommended, however the website will only allow a licensed vet to log in. Is there another website I can buy the formula from? Also, of the two (Lysimachia-3 and Crystal Stone formula) which do you prefer? Is one better than the other? Can you recommend a reputable place to buy Lysimachia-3?

    Have you heard of this product –

    Finally, I don’t want to put Rock through another surgery, so I am willing to try anything to keep him healthy!

  8. says

    Jan 2014 Bladder stones and diet change

    We had a lot of trouble with bladder stones ( Calcium Oxalate) with our Hannah (a Cairn terrier) including an instances of acute retention which could have killed her, but a change of diet to a bland and natural one seem to solve the problem on a life long basis. Most vets seem to favour a change of diet.

    For a description of Hannah’s problems and details of her case history please see –

    If the link does not work then just copy and paste the address into the http:// address bar at the top of your screen.

  9. Giselle says

    Hi Dr. Smith, im giselle from argentina and my 7 year old miniature shnauzer has been recently diagnose with oxalate stones. We made him an ultrasound and found 2 stones with moderate size. Since in my country we are not able to find Hills c/d diet or Royal canin urinary food, im making his food every day, but i would like to have a proper diet (actually im prepearing boiled chicken breast, with rice, boiled pumpkin and carrots). Im a litle bit concern that im might be missing nutrients in his food. Could you please help me with a homecook diet for my dog? Also as a biologist i would like to know more about giving him distilled water (isnt it bad to drink that kind of water can him loose minerals with it?), now with the wet diet he is not drinking much from the fountain so i might increase the amount of water in the food right?
    Thank so very much in advance!

    • says

      Replace the chicken with turkey, preferably turkey breast. You need to supplement calcium. You can accomplish this by giving a whole egg daily with shell included or give a Tums tablet that can be bought at local pharmacy. Give distilled water as this limits the amount of unnecessary minerals often found in regular water that can contribute to stone formation.Also add some water to the food and make it like soup. If you want me to formulate a total diet, it will take some time and i would need other information about your pet’s ailment. thank you and i hope this helps!!

  10. Daphanie says

    My dog Jasmin will be 10 yrs in Feb. Took her to the vet a week ago for incontinence, vet done a UA and found calcium crystals. I am so confused at this point because the focus has changed from why I went to the crystal’s in the urine. Are the crystal’s the cause on the incontinence? By changing her diet to the prescription food is that going to take care of the issue that?

  11. Jacqueline says

    Hi Dr. Smith,

    I have a 6 year old Ocherese (maltese/peekapoo mix) who was diagnosed with a portosystemic shunt and has been developing calcium oxalate stones. He just had his second surgery to remove a stone yesterday and before that had surgery 2 1/2 years ago. He has been on Hill’s prescription k/d diet for several years now for the PSS. My vet is considering putting him on the Royal Canin SO diet for the stones but I am worried from everything I have read. I am considering doing a home diet and possibly adding the herbs you suggest, but want to make sure he is getting all the nutrients he needs. Any suggestions??? He only weighs 6 lbs 8 ounces.



    • says

      I think you need to decide what problem is most important. Are the issues with PSS more of a concern or are the issues with urinary stones more of a problem. It will be tough to treat both issues at the same time in the best fashion. How do you know there is a PSS? Have there ever been any clinical signs associated with the shunt. If “yes,” then i would stay away from a home cooked diet. If “no”, then I might consider. MY choice might be to acidify the urine with diet or with supplements, monitor the urine for infection, and see how that works for both issues.

  12. Julie says

    Hi Dr. Smith
    I have a 10 year old terrier about 14 pounds. He has had two surgeries most recently in December 2012 for calcium oxalate stones. The vet has recommended Hills UD about a year now. Ever since he has been on this food, he has really bad skin issues..itchy scaly. The vet has prescribed prednisone, which if I don’t give him daily, he is miserable. I hate giving him this medication. I truly believe it is the food. The vet insist that it is not..I trust my vet, I have been using them for 20 years, but I was wanting to know if a homemade diet would make a difference. I want to try but I want to be sure that I am giving him the correct amounts of what he needs. I have done some research on homemade diets. I want to be sure this would be the right thing to do. Any help would be greatly appreicated 🙂

    • says

      Hard to say for sure! Prednisone may increase Calcium in the urine leading to increased formation of Calcium uroliths. You may have to decide which problem, the itching or stones, is most important and treat accordingly. Home cooked diets can and do help many ailments; however, they are time consuming to prepare and somewhat more expensive. An easier option may be the Pet-Tao harmony diet, antihistamines and a real low, every other day dose of prednisone. If you want or prefer a homemade diet, I would recommend you get your veterinarian or a qualified person to advise you and formulate the diet.

  13. Julie says

    Thank you for your prompt response! I will definitely take all this into consideration as I try and decide what to do.

  14. Gina says

    Hi Dr. Smith! My cocker spaniel was just diagnosed with having CaOx crystals in his urine. Our vet put him on the urinary prescription diet and of course because my dog is the pickiest eater on the planet, he hates the food and won’t eat it. I’ve decided to make homemade dog food for him, if that will keep him healthy I don’t mind, but I’m not sure what “recipe(s)” to use, what proportions, added supplements, ect… I have lists of foods low and high in CaOx, so I have a general idea of what to include, but do I feed him a raw diet? My vet didn’t have any nutritional advice for me. I basically would like some recipes or meal plans to follow. Do you know where I may find them specific for CaOx?? Thank you! 🙂

    • says

      Thank you for contacting me!! Sorry about your issue and I will see if i can help. How old is your dog and how much does he/she weigh?
      Specifically, I would recommend a diet low in oxalates. You can search the internet and find foods low in Oxalate content. Concerning supplements, I would use what I recommend on my blog post. Also, depending on your dog’s age, you may want to add a vitamin. If you dog is over three, you can add whole egg shells every other day and this can take the place of a vitamin.
      Concerning recipes, I do not have a place to send you directly that is credible. I wish i did. I would do a search and use low oxalate foods. Mix foods in a 60-20-20 ratio meaning 60% protein 20% carbs and 20% fat. As far as volume to feed, I would need to know the weight of your dog sex, age breed, and whether or not spayed/neutered. I hope this helps. If you want me to put together a specific diet, I would be happy to do that. It just takes some time and research and I will have to charge you for that. I do frequently put together home cooked diets for people. Another option if you decide not to home cook but want a good food is

      • Gina says

        Thanks for your response!! I appreciate it 🙂 I have searched for foods low in oxalates, I just didn’t know what proportions to feed him so this info will help! He is only a 2 year old cocker spaniel, poor little guy! I’ll check out supplements you suggest. Thank you so much for your help!

  15. Noelle says

    Hi Dr. Smith,
    I am at a loss as to what to feed my dog! I have 7 year old neutered Basenji-mix (40 lbs). He has a variety of health issues including Addison’s Disease (managed with monthly DOCP injections and daily prednisone), food sensitivities, and recently had surgery to remove CaOx stones from his bladder. His vet put him on prescription food, but he does not like it. He was previously on Taste of the Wild, loved it, and was doing quite well on it. I am so disappointed in the prescription food ingredients and now am at a loss as to what to do. I would like him to be on a food with a quality protein and no corn. I have been researching the ingredients in OTC food and am hoping to find one that will be suitable for all of his issues. I was surprised to see that some ingredients listed on the prescription foods were on a list of high-oxalate foods! I could really use some advice. Does a diet change really make a difference if my dog is likely to develop stones again because of the prednisone? Thanks so much for your time, I know there is an answer out there somewhere!

    • says

      I would follow all the advice on my blog post concerning the medications/supplements to use when a dog has been diagnosed with calcium oxalate stones. Also, since you are using prednisone, i think you should diligently follow my recommendations.concerning food, I would try one of the Pet-tao diets and use an herbal medicine called Bladder Damp heat. If you have other questions, please ask!!

  16. Emily says

    Hi Dr. Smith,
    I have a 1 year and 8 month old female pug who our vet believes has developed calcium oxalate bladder stones. She goes in for surgery tomorrow to have them removed, and the exact type of stone will be confirmed then. We live in Canada and do not have access to all the recommended brands of food. Our vet has prescribed a Royal Canine product; however, we see lots of filler and unhealthy additives in the ingredients. As a result, we would like to make her food at home. We have done some research and find that the information from certain places, such as the University of Minnesota, provides chemical terms for what our dog requires but not the food items that the chemicals can be found in. Can you point us in the right direction in terms of creating a healthy, home-based diet for our dog? We do not know where to start and some of the research in this area is quite contradictory. I read your other blogs on this website and saw your recommendations of Turkey breast, calcium supplements (as this was lacking in the other dogs diet), etc. I am hoping you can help as we are transitioning from dry, kibble food to a home based diet with no where to start!!!

    Thank you very much for you time,

  17. Barb says

    Hello Dr. Smith,
    My eleven-year old female dachshund had a disc episode at the beginning of June of this year (2014) and I began a strict program of crate rest and in the first month or so, prednisone and pain meds. Today is her last and final day of crate rest (she had a relapse over July 4th) and is doing well with just some wobbly rear legs. She’s also had acupuncture and has been on Double P II for two weeks (1/16th tsp. 2x a day) and will continue on it for only a total of two months. Our current vet is FABULOUS! My question to you….my dog’s urine test results from yesterday show no blood; no crystals; no infection but a 5 ph reading (should be 6.5-7) so my vet feels her kidney and bladder stones (shown on digital xrays) are calcium oxylate stones and wants to try Crystal Stone Formula. What can you tell me about that herb as I’m assuming you’ve used that in your clinic on your patients successfully??? Do you suggest any additive treatment for the stones besides the Crystal Stone formula?

    • says

      Hi Barb,
      Thanks for writing! Crystal Stone Formula will not dissolve the stones in the bladder if they are calcium oxalate. Assuming the stones are indeed calcium oxalate, the other suggestion I might recommend is potassium citrate. Crystal Stone Formula is a great herbal medicine for stones and cystitis, however in my experiences it will not dissolve calcium oxalate stones. I also think it safe to assume these are calcium oxalate stones because of the pH; however, that is not always the case. Unfortunately, calcium oxalate stones can only be remedied via surgery.

  18. Ann says

    I have a almost 5 year old mini schnauzer male from rescue………and sooooo confused….. I know this breed is prone to pancreatitis….so have to keep fat low……..Ripper, just had emergency surgery 10 days ago for a calcium oxalate stone that obstructed his urine….it had gotten in his urethera and he couldn’t pee……constant squatting and straining, nothing came out…….so the problem…..we got our stitches out today and were discussing what the plan of care was…….before she told me he would be on canned urinary food……, she said that if we try to use just diet…..she was sure they would return…….so my directions were……….feed what I want………save low dose Lasix , 10 md day,…..he is 15 lbs…….and calcium citrate on his food twice a day……….most of websites say don’t give Lasix but use hydrochlorathyide……don’t think that is spelled correctly……..any way……….asked about giving real food like chicken or ground turkey…..she said it would not be good to give him that…….one website said potatoes, white were good…..she said no…..same for green beans…….all I want is to do what’s best for him…….even if I cook for him…..also have another mini schnauzer Lily with no issues……….I am a RN, and honestly giving him Lasix scares me……and more than one website says no……….we also have bad allergies…… I want something to help prevent stones,…….low fat, under 10, that is healthy……..thanks in advance for any info you can give me

    • says

      Hi Ann, Thanks for writing. I would follow the diet on my website if you want to do home cooked. You can find this diet at I would use distilled water and stay off prednisone. Potassium citrate is fine. The idea behind lasix is to make your dog drink and pee more and subsequently void more minerals in the bladder to prevent them from forming into stones. Hydrochlorothiazide will do the same thing, except for that it does not cause as much calcium excretion through the urinary tract. Hydrochlorothiazide is probably the more popular choice, but not necessarily the only choice, and your veterinarian needs to make that decision.

  19. Ann says

    One other thing…..would like to keep up with his ph……asked her about buying the strips……..was told that the ones that people use would not work……asked her about vet strips……she told me I couldn’t buy them…..only vets have them… that true?????

    • says

      We use the URS-10 by Teco Diagnostics in the clinic. I think there is still debate on how accurate the pH reading is. If we want to find out exactly, we send the sample to an outside lab for diagnostic testing. I think you can probably buy these, or similar strips, at Walgreen’s or Wal-Mart.

  20. ruby garcia says

    hi doctor, i just came back from the vet today and they gave me the news that my 7 year old terrier mix girl has calcium oxalate, i give her treats all the time she goes pee and now i cant due to this situation, i was told by a pamphlet to give her boiled chicken as a treat, what do you suggest?

  21. Julie says

    Hi Doctor Smith,
    I have a female 8 month old American Staffordshire. She was spayed a few months back and is now on her second UTI. I am in the process of switching her to adult dog foods. My labs eat a combination of dry foods but I feel I need to get her a different kind of food to help alleviate her urinary problems. The vet is going to do an xray to see if she has stones. Either way I need to address her urinary issues. I have tried researching different foods, what is your suggestion and should I use supplements even if she doesn’t have stones? Are there specific types of treats I should use? She is still training so she does get treats frequently with training.

    Thank you for your help

    • says

      First, rule out stones. Stones cause recurrent urinary tract issues. Second, concerning diet, I would recommend a canned or wet food. More water in the diet decreases stone formation and flushes the urinary tract. Concerning what food to feed, you need to ask your veterinarian. But, i would recommend the Pet-Tao harmony diet. Treats should not be baked and preferably freeze dried. Pet-Tao kidney treats would be great. Pet-Tao is a diet i formulated so I frequently recommend it as i know the formulation well.

  22. MzSarah says

    I have a 6 year female miniature schnauzer/shih tzu mix and I just found out that she has Oxalate Bladder Stones. She is use to having a treat a couple times a day. Now I know she can have bananas but can she have dried bananas? Or some other treat that does not need to be kept in the refrigerator.


  23. Scott says

    I have a perplexing issue with my 14 yr old Datchsund / Beagle mix. He is about 20 lbs and has just had an X-ray where we have identified bladed stones for the third time. His only other ailment is arthritis.
    Four years ago, in 2011, he had surgery for bladder stones, after attempting a special diet to dissolve the stones. The stones were sent to the U of Minn and identified as calcium oxalate stones. Following surgery he have put him on the Royal Canine SO diet and has been on this strictly without even any treats for fours years.
    June of 2013, again he showed bladder stones. He had surgery to have them removed and to the vets disbelief they returned as calcium oxalate stones again from the U of Minn. The stones were black and the consistency of sand unlike the previous time where they were various sizes and were white. The vet said the bladder was very frail during the surgery and was concerned with the stiches due to the “weak” state of the bladder.
    Now June of 2015, his X-ray show signs of bladder stones again and we are not sure what is best for his treatment. Being that he is 14 and the state of his bladder from the last surgery, we are hesitant to put him through surgery again, but not sure of what other options exist which may be better for him, if any.

    The first two surgeries were done in Nashville, but unfortunately we have since moved. Would love to hear your perspective.

    • says

      Three surgeries is a big deal.
      If your dog were my dog, I would put him on a different diet first. Try higher protein, all meat based, canned diet. Then, I would put him on an Eastern Herbal called ” Crystal Stone Formula.” Do not pursue treatment unless he shows clinical signs of pain related to the urinary system.